|Born||11 April 1960/63|
|Allegiance|| Egypt |
Egyptian Islamic Jihad (c. 1980s)
(c. late 1980s to early 1990s – present)
|Service/|| Egyptian Army |
|Years of service||1976–1981|
(1976–1981) Al-Qaeda Military Chief (2001–present)
Saif al-Adel (Arabic: سيف العدل) (born 11 April 1960/63) is an Egyptian former military colonel, explosives expert, and a high-ranking member of al-Qaeda who is still at large. Adel is under indictment by the United States for his part in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya.
According to the indictment, Adel is a member of the majlis al shura of al-Qaeda and a member of its military committee. He has provided military and intelligence training to members of al-Qaeda and Egyptian Islamic Jihad in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan, and to anti-UN Somali tribes. It is possible that his trainees included the Somalis of the first Battle of Mogadishu. He established the al-Qaeda training facility at Ras Kamboni in Somalia near the Kenyan border.
Adel was accused of being involved with Egyptian Islamic Jihad and attempting to overthrow the Egyptian government in 1987. After the charges were dismissed, he left the country in 1988 to join the mujahideen in repelling the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He is believed to have traveled to southern Lebanon along with Abu Talha al-Sudani, Saif al-Islam al-Masri, Abu Ja`far al-Masri, and Abu Salim al-Masri, where he trained alongside Hezbollah Al-Hejaz.
In Khartoum, Sudan, Adel taught recruited militants how to handle explosives. Along with Saeed al-Masri and Mahfouz Ould al-Walid, he is believed to have opposed the September 11 attacks two months prior to their execution.
The Egyptian military has yet to release his files, but it is believed that Saif al-Adel (which translates to "Sword of Justice") is a pseudonym. His real name is thought to be Mohammed Salah al-Din Zaidan. He was born around 1960 (The FBI claims 11 April). He joined the Egyptian Military around 1976 and became a Colonel in the Special Forces as an Explosives expert, possibly being trained in the Soviet Union. He fled Egypt in 1988 and reportedly made his way to Afghanistan, joining the relatively small but well funded (and mainly Egyptian and Saudi) Maktab al-Khidamat, which was the forerunner to al-Qaeda. He became a trainer in Explosives to new recruits, and would stay in Afghanistan after the war to train members of the newly formed Taliban. The leader of the Somali militant Islamist group al-Shabaab, Moktar Ali Zubeyr, has said that Saif al-Adel and Yusef al-Ayeri played an important role in the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu by providing training and participating in the battle directly. Adel would later join Bin Laden in Sudan after 1994.
Several months before the 1998 embassy bombings, Adel was helping Osama bin Laden move his followers from Najim Jihad to Tarnak Farms. The group had begrudgingly agreed to care for the troublesome Canadian 16-year-old, Abdurahman Khadr, since his father was away and his mother couldn't control his drinking, smoking and violent outbursts. However, while they were in Kabul, bin Laden asked Adel to take Abdurahman to the bus station and send him back to his family's home.
In approximately 2000, Adel was living in the Karte Parwan district of Kabul. On the local walkie-talkie communications in the city, he was identified as #1. On 9 September 2001, Adel was approached by Feroz Ali Abbasi, who said he was so impressed by the killing of Ahmed Shah Massoud that he wanted to volunteer for something similar.
—Saif al-Adl describing November 2001 American attack against militant tank near Kandahar
In early November 2001, the Taliban government announced they were bestowing official Afghan citizenship on Adel, as well as Bin Laden, Zawahiri, Mohammed Atef, and Shaykh Asim Abdulrahman. During the American bombardment of Kandahar, Adel was present and witnessed the deaths of Abu-Ali al-Yafi'i and his wife, Abu-Usamah al-Ta'zi with his wife and two children, the wife of Rayyan al-Ta'zi, the wife of Abu-Usamah al-Kini, and the wife of Al-Barra al-Hijazi who was arrested in Morocco before the Casablanca bombings.
On 18 November, Adel was working with Abu-Muhammad al-Abyad, Abd-al-Rahman al-Masri, and Abu-Usamah al-Filastini, Abu-Husayn al-Masri and Faruq al-Suri; all of whom were staying in his empty house with him at night. In the early morning hours of 19 November, he woke them up just minutes before the al-Wafa charity building was bombed. Phoning friends in the area, he learned that Abdul Wahid had been killed in the explosion. He later learned that Asim al-Yamani, from Al Farouq training camp, and the elderly Abu-Abd-al-Rahman Al-Abiy had run to the charity's headquarters and begun rescuing survivors and pulling out the dead bodies. The pair agreed the area was not safe, and sent their women to the smaller villages, while they used their two cars to try and pack up their house's contents. An American jet bombed the pair, killing al-Yamani and wounding al-Abiy.
As it was the third day of Ramadan, the group in Adel's house began to prepare and eat Suhoor, but were interrupted by a cruise missile striking 100 metres away, destroying an empty house belonging to an Afghan Arab family, and a Taliban barracks. They gathered their belongings and quickly left, fearing another strike. Adel went to the hospital, where he visited the wounded al-Abiy, and arranged for him to be transferred to a hospital in Pakistan.
After Adel was told by Abu Ali al-Suri that the American aircraft had machinegunned women leaving the city on the road to Banjway, Adel said that he would send aid. A convoy of 4–6 Corolla Fielders set out to Banjway, followed closely by American helicopters. The Americans attacked the lead vehicle, killing Abu-Ali al-Yafi'i, his wife, four women, and two children, and the second vehicle, killing Suraqah al-Yamani and Hamzah al-Suri. Abu-Ali al-Maliki quickly veered off the road with the third vehicle, turning off his headlights, and drove into the mountains, escaping the attack.
2003 Riyadh bombing
Al-Adel and Saad bin Laden were implicated in the 12 May 2003 suicide bombing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In May 2003, then-State Department official Ryan Crocker provided information on the upcoming attack to Iranian officials, who apparently took no action. However, according to Saad's family and an interrogation of former al-Qaeda spokesman Sulaiman Abu Ghaith, Saad and al-Adel were being held prisoner in Iran when the attack took place. In 2004, he published a "terrorist manual" entitled The Base of the Vanguard, an Arabic pun on the phrases al-Qaeda ("the base") and the Vanguards of Conquest.
Al-Adel is a leader of al-Qaeda in Iran, according to American security expert Seth Jones.
Adel has been on the FBI's list of Most Wanted Terrorists since its inception in 2001. The State Department's Rewards for Justice Program is offering up to US$10 million for information on his location.
In late 2001, Adel fled Afghanistan to Iran and was detained under house arrest in Tehran. Later reports indicated that he was released by Iran in March 2010 in exchange for the release of Heshmatollah Attarzadeh, an Iranian diplomat kidnapped in November 2008, and made his way to northern Pakistan. Although Mahfouz Ould al-Walid was reported killed in a January 2002 American airstrike, it was later revealed that he fled to Iran with Adel.
In July 2011, it was reported that Adel returned to Iran.
However, according to Ghaith, al-Adel never left Iran and was still under house arrest when Ghaith was captured in 2013.
On 16 March 2016, a Twitter account affiliated with al-Qaeda implicated al-Adel as having been sent to aid against the Russian intervention in the Syrian Civil War. A similar report also placed al-Adel as having been sent to Syria as an emissary on behalf of al-Qaeda emir Ayman al-Zawahiri. However, Long War Journal claims that al-Adel is still residing in Iran.
It was originally believed that his real name is Mohammed Ibrahim Makkawi. However, on 29 February 2012, Egyptian authorities arrested a man by that name at Cairo International Airport and it was discovered that he was not Adel. Adel's real name is instead Mohammed Salah al-Din Zaidan. The FBI continues to list Makkawi and not Zaidan on its Most Wanted poster.
In February 2006, the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point published a number of declassified documents from the Harmony database, some of which are known or believed to have been written by Saif al-Adel. One is a letter signed "Omar al-Sumali, previously known as Saif al-Adel", about the author's activities in southern Somalia during UNOSOM II (1993–1995). It identifies Ras Kamboni as a suitable site for an al-Qaeda base. It mentions an accomplice of Adel called "Mukhtar".
In a letter from "'Abd-al-Halim Adl'" to "'Mukhtar'", dated 13 June 2002, the author strongly criticises the leadership of Osama bin Laden, blaming the defeats of the preceding six months for al-Qaeda on bin Laden's recklessness and unwillingness to listen to advice:
If someone opposes [bin Ladin], he immediately puts forward another person to render an opinion in his support, clinging to his opinion and totally disregarding those around him ... Perhaps, brother Abu Mattar has warned you that his opinion [of bin Ladin's leadership] has changed a lot since he got out of his previous situation.
The East Asia, Europe, America, Horn of Africa, Yemen, Gulf, and Morocco groups have fallen, and Pakistan has almost been drowned in one push. I, not to mention the other individuals who have also moved and fallen, have often advised on this matter. Regrettably, my brother, if you look back, you will find that you are the person solely responsible for all this because you undertook the mission, and during six months, we only lost what we built in years.
In 2004, Adel was alleged to be the author of The Al-Battar Military Camp, a manual that advised prospective militants about how to strike easy targets.
In March 2007, the Pentagon posted on the Internet a transcript of part of the hearing into the combatant status of detainee Ramzi bin al-Shibh. Some of the evidence against bin al-Shibh came from a diary of Saif al-Adel found in Saudi Arabia in 2004.
The CSRT document described al-Adel by the following:
Sayf al-Adel is a senior al Qaida military commander with a long-term relationship with Usama bin Laden. Sayf al-Adel's role in the organization has been as a trainer, military leader, and key member of Usama bin Laden's security detail.
The diary of Sayf al-Adel was recovered during a raid in Saudi Arabia in 2004. The diary details the Detainee's involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist plot and subsequent attack.
In addition, the paragraph continued:
The Detainee is listed as a "highly professional jihadist" along with "9/11 hijackers", Mohammed Atta and Ziad Jarrah. The diary states that the three were briefed on an operation involving aircraft by Abu Hafs, a senior al Qaida planner.
In December 2010, Adel allegedly sent a series of five letters to Abu Walid al Masri, then under house arrest in Iran. He discusses the War in Afghanistan, criticises the religious failings of the mujahidin and hypocrisy of Islamic scholars, and the failure of the Jihadist movement to learn from previous mistakes. Al Masri posted the letters on the Internet in December 2010. In March 2011, Adel allegedly released another five letters through al Masri, which covered the Arab Spring uprisings.
In August 2015, a eulogy written by al-Adel for Abu Khalid al Suri, an al-Qaeda veteran who served as both a senior figure in the Syrian opposition group Ahrar al-Sham and as Ayman al Zawahiri's representative in Syria, was released. In the eulogy he criticized the Islamic State and described them as having "twisted" and "perverted" thoughts.
- "Saif al-Adel wanted poster". FBI, US Department of Justice. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "Rewards for Justice - Wanted for Terrorism - Sayf al-Adl".
- "Has al-Qaeda Replanted its Flag in Syria?". news.siteintelgroup.com.
- "Osama Bin Laden: Al-Qaeda releases posthumous message". BBC News. 2011-05-19. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
Speculation is mounting that al-Qaeda has appointed a former Egyptian army colonel, Saif al-Adel, as temporary leader to replace Bin Laden. Adel was once Bin Laden's security chief, and is suspected of involvement in the 1998 US embassy bombings in East Africa, training the Somali fighters who killed 18 US servicemen in Mogadishu in 1993, and instructing some of the 11 September 2001 hijackers. He fled to Iran from Afghanistan after the US-led invasion in 2001, and was reportedly held under house arrest near Tehran. Reports at the end of last year said he may have been released and made his way to northern Pakistan. Some Western analysts have expressed scepticism over reports of his appointment. Bin Laden's long-time deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri, also Egyptian, is thought to be the front-runner for the role.
- Jamal al-Fadl testimony, United States vs. Osama bin Laden et al., trial transcript, Day 2, February 6, 2001.
- Copy of indictment Archived 2001-11-10 at the Library of Congress Web Archives USA v. Usama bin Laden et al., Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies
"Who's who in al-Qaeda". BBC News. 2003-02-19. Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
In 1987, Egypt accused Adel - whose real name is Muhammad Ibrahim Makkawi - of trying to establish a military wing of the militant Islamic group al-Jihad, and of trying to overthrow the government.
- Saif al-Adel. "Letter from Adel about Ras Kamboni" (PDF). 2: Combating Terrorism Center United States Military Academy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2015-09-02.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "Al-Qaeda's new military chief". BBC News. 2001-12-19. Archived from the original on 2014-10-28. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Hegghammer, Thomas (February 2008). "Deconstructing the myth about al-Qaida and Khobar" (PDF). CTC Sentinel.
- 9/11 Commission, p. 251
- Fadel, Leila (2011-02-22). "Identity of alleged al-Qaeda leader arrested at Cairo airport remains unclear". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (2011-05-17). "al-Qaeda's Alleged New Leader: Who Is Saif al-Adel?". Time. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
- "Shabaab leader recounts al Qaeda's role in Somalia in the 1990s". Long War Journal. 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2014-07-01.
- Shephard, Michelle (2008). Guantanamo's Child: The Untold Story of Omar Khadr. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-84117-4.
- Bergen, Peter (2006). The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al-Qaeda's Leader. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-7891-7.
- Scheuer, Michael (2008). Marching Towards Hell: America and Islam after Iraq. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-9969-5.
- The Hindu, "Taliban grants Osama citizenship", November 9, 2001
"Al-Qa'ida member recalls US bombardment, accuses Taliban of betrayal". World News Connection. 2003-10-29. Archived from the original on 2004-06-10. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
Sayf-al-Adl criticized the "al-Qa'ida" elements' security indiscipline for not following the security instructions when using satellite telephones, saying that this helped the Americans pinpoint easily the "Arab Afghans" locations in Kandahar during October and November 2001.
- Khaled, Dawoud (2001-11-19). "Mohammed Atef". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
Augustine Anthony (2011-05-23). "Study ties new al Qaeda chief to murder of journalist Pearl". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
'KSM told the FBI that he was pulled into the kidnapping by a high-level leader in al Qaeda circles, an Egyptian named Saif al-Adel, who told him to make the kidnapping an al Qaeda operation,' said the investigators in their report which was published in January.
- Thomas Joscelyn (2011-05-18). "Analysis: Al Qaeda's interim emir and Iran". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Jones, Seth G. (2012-01-29). "Al Qaeda in Iran". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- Bergen, Peter (2013-03-10). "Strange bedfellows -- Iran and al Qaeda". CNN. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- Filkins, Dexter (2013-09-30). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- "Asharq AL-awsat - International and Arab News". aawsat.com.
- "Starting A Home Garden". 19 August 2014.
- Wright, Lawrence (September 11, 2006). "The Master Plan". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Schwartz, Daniel (23 April 2013). "Iran likely unaware of al-Qaeda's Canadian plot, security expert says". CBC News. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
- "Press Releases".
- Saif al-Adel wanted poster Archived February 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Rewards for Justice, US Department of State
- "New al-Qaeda chief in North Waziristan". Thenews.com.pk. 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- Al-Qaida finds safe haven in Iran, NBC News, 24 June 2005
- Bower, Amanda. TIME, "More arrests, new threats in fight against terror", September 9, 2002
- Musharbash, Yassin (October 25, 2010). "A Top Terrorist Returns to Al-Qaida Fold: Saif al-Adel Back in Waziristan". Der Spiegel. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "Top al-Qaeda ranks keep footholds in Iran". USA Today. Associated Press. July 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
"Iran is getting rid of its terrorist trash ... for now". Al Arabiya. 2015-09-20. Archived from the original on 2015-09-22.
Egyptian Saif al-Adel's story is similar to al-Mughassil's. He was also wanted by the United States and Saudi Arabia. Both terrorists were protected by Iran.
- "Al Qaeda insider returns to Twitter, discusses group's global leadership". Long War Journal. March 16, 2016.
- "Mysterious al-Qaida figure emerges in Syria". WTOP. 5 November 2015.
- "Analysis: 2 wanted al Qaeda leaders operate in Iran - FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 14 August 2018.
- "Al-Qaeda commander Saif al-Adel 'held at Cairo airport'". BBC News. February 29, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
Omar Ashour, a lecturer in Politics of the Modern Arab World at the University of Exeter, told the BBC that Saif al-Adel's real name was Mohammed Salah al-Din Zaidan, and that the two men had different dates and places of birth, and different experiences with jihadism and al-Qaeda.
- "Will the real Saif al-Adel please stand up?". Asharq Al-Awsat. March 1, 2002.
- "Adel letter to Mukhtar (English translation)" (PDF). United States Military Academy (USMA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-03.
- "Adel letter to Mukhtar", handwritten Arabic original, at USMA
- National Post, "Al-Qaeda Urges Attacks On Canadians: Instructions In Manual: Advises Hitting 'Easy Targets That Are Not Protected'", March 31, 2004
- Atwan, Abdel Bari (2006). The Secret History of Al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-520-24974-7.
- Verbatim Transcript of Combatant Status Review Tribunal Hearing for ISN 10013, US Department of Defense
- Brown, Valid (10 February 2011). "Al-Qa’ida Revisions: The Five Letters of Sayf al-‘Adl" Jihadica.
- Hamid, Mustafa "القاعدة - رسالة القاعدة إلى موقع مافا السياسى بقلم"
- Hamid, Mustafa "القاعدة - الخمسة الشداد : مقالات جديدة من عابر سبيل"
- Farrall, Leah (24 March 2011). "New Sayf al-Adl letters"
- Media related to Saif al-Adel at Wikimedia Commons
- Weisfuse, Ari (March 17, 2016). "The Last Hope for the al-Qa'ida Old Guard? A Profile of Saif al-'Adl". CTC Sentinel.