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Priapulus caudatus

Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
Clade: Cycloneuralia

Cycloneuralia is a clade of ecdysozoan animals including the Scalidophora (Kinorhynchans, Loriciferans, Priapulids) and the Nematoida (nematodes, Nematomorphs).[1][2] It may be paraphyletic, or may be a sister group to Panarthropoda. Or perhaps Panarthropoda is paraphyletic with respect to Cycloneuralia.[3] The group has also been considered a single phylum, sometimes given the old name Nemathelminthes.[4] The uniting character is the nervous system organization with a circumpharyngeal brain and somata–neuropil–somata pattern.[5]

The name derives from the position of the brain around the pharynx.[6]


  1. ^ "articulata". Archived from the original on 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  2. ^ Telford MJ, Bourlat SJ, Economou A, Papillon D, Rota-Stabelli O (April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 363 (1496): 1529–37. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232. PMID 18192181.
  3. ^ Dunn, et al., 2008; Dunn, CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW; et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
  4. ^ "A revised six-kingdom system of life" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  5. ^ The neuromuscular system of Pycnophyes kielensis (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy - EvoDevo
  6. ^ "Explanations.html". Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2009-06-28.